In reviewing the blog comments on my short memo on “Sinhala Mind-Set” during the years 2009-15, I was induced to place a claim by one “Flloyd” before about eighty of friends and others in my email address list in order to evaluate his assertion in April 2013 that “the Tamils continue to be tortured, raped, and killed by the state.” Though reading this particular charge as far too sweeping, I set out to test my reading. In my thinking this claim gained weight from the fact that the rest of Flloyd’s commentary suggested that he was not an extremist.
Some 23 individuals – including 5 Tamils, 1 Irishman,1 Colombo Chetty and 2 Indians — have responded, albeit briefly in several instances (with a few endorsing my suggestion that it is a sweeping exaggeration).. This item is now on web. One of those who commented, the Telugu Indian journalist Muralidhar Reddy has been kind enough to send me a private note from his location (now in India) that runs thus: “This turned out to be a very good exercise. Productive, useful and frankness from the heart of real people who were or are still on the ground.”
In pursuit of further value, I now present a BIBLIOGRAPHY on the topic of disappearances that amplifies previous efforts – one that has been assisted by the recent exercise. Note that I have not embraced items that focus specifically on rape in this exercise. Ii is a standard practice in agit-prop action from anti-state activists as well as foreign reporters on brief excursions to the island to bracket “disappearances, torture and rape” together. Such an ‘alliance’ brings feminists on board and illuminates the halo around any writer’s head.
However, to bring instances of rape into the frame of inter-ethnic violence is fraught with problems because there is reason to surmise that a high proportion of the known instances of rape are by Sinhalese on Sinhalese and Tamils on Tamils. The recent gang-rape and murder of Sivaloganathan Vithiya at Pungudutivu on 15th May 2015 seems to have been a case of intra-familial vengeance-as Dinusha Panditharatne indicated in her comment. But it was the occasion for anti-state protests in Tamil area — a pointer to the depths of bitterness residing in Tamil hearts.
Yes, rape has certainly been an incidental tactic within wars the world over and, in my surmise, it is probable that we will never be able to extricate the figures for rape by the fighters on both sides during the Eelam Wars; nor those for rape inflicted on both male and female prisoners of war or Tamil internees in the years 2006-2016. But whatever the figures or specific incidents we recover, they must be set alongside the broader regional backdrop of comparative regional statistics on rape within Sri Lanka over time, with further contextualization provided by comparative statistics on suicide and murder within the provinces and districts of the island.
If memory serves me right, Sri Lanka has had a high suicide rate for decades; and it ranked third highest in the world in 2012 with 28.8 per 100,000 thousand according to WHO figures. The comparative figures for the world in Wikipedia and other sites must be viewed with caution and deciphered by experts in such fields. For what they are worth, the figures for rape in the sensationalist “Top Ten in the World” indicated that Sri Lanka was second highest “two years ago,” but had slipped [and thus improved] beyond the worst ten by 2016 (or whenever Ejaz Khan presented his summary — with no date indicated — recently. According to one set of police figures the rate was 10.6 per 100,000 people in 2013. Clearly, we need those with expertise in this field to analyse the regional distribution over a period, with spot checks on similar data from the 20th century, to see if the incidence of rape in Tamil-majority districts in recent years is greater than those in Sinhala-majority districts. Till that is done and placed in the public domain, I hold that it is best to bracket “rape” within a box entitled “yet to be studied.”
So, the focus in this list is on data and arguments relating to the incidence of “disappearances” and “torture” in the period 2009-16. Some items are more pertinent in presenting the surrounding circumstances: these are coloured PURPLE. I encourage interested parties to submit other references That I have missed – so this will hopefully be a growing reference list
 Usually Tamil, but also including diehard Leftists.
 Informed by dim memories from R. N. Kearny & Barbara Miller<: “Suicide and Internal Migration in Sri Lanka,” Journal of Asian & African Studies, 1988, vol. 23/3: 287 – 304 Also see WP de Silva at http://dl.nsf.ac.lk/bitstream/handle/1/7164/CJMS-23(1-2)-10.pdf?sequence=2
 See Ejaz Khan at http://www.wonderslist.com/10-countries-highest-rape-crime/ hwere the country description runs thus: “Sri Lanka’s security forces are still raping and torturing suspects. There have been recent allegations that rape and torture by the Sri Lankan security forces have continued four years after the civil war ended. The UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence found that 14.5% of the sample of Sri Lankan men had perpetrated rape at some point in their lives. 4.9% had raped in the past year. 2.7% had raped another man. 1.6% had took part in a gang rape. 96.5% of the men who had raped experienced no legal consequences. 65.8% didn’t feel worried or guilty afterwards. 64.9% of rapists had raped more than once, and 11.1% had raped four or more girls or women. That’s why the country has highest suicide rates in the world.
 Significantly, the worst (meaning highest) ratings for “rape crime’ ran thus: Denmark & Finland; Zimbabwe; Australia; Canada; New Zealand; India; England & Wales; USA; South Africa (see http://www.wonderslist.com/top-10-countries-with-maximum-rape-crimes/).
Abeywickrema, Mandana Ismail 2011 “Rehabilitation and Re-Integration of Former LTTE Cadres,” Sunday Leader, 9 January 2011.
BBC 2010 “Second chance for Tamil former child soldiers,” 23 December 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8400366.stm
BCGR n. d. “Reuniting Rehabilitated ex-combatants with their families and Reintegrating them into Society,” http://www.bcgr.gov.lk/
Karunanayake, Samanmali 2010 “Ex-LTTE cadres recalled to a life of fruitfulness,” Daily News, 11 October 2011.
Aranze, Janith 2011 “Sri Lanka’s Srebenica Moment. Q and A with Gordon Weiss,” Sunday Leader, 1 May 2011.
Banu, Dilshy 2012 Operation Manik Farm, Colombo, Stamford Lake.
Croos, Fr. J., Deanne Uyangoda and Ruki Fernando 2011 “Threats, Harassments and Restrictions on Former Detainees and Their Families in Vanni,” 11 May 2011, http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2011/05/threats-harassments-and-restrictions-on.html
CSI 2014 “The Sooka Report: How NGOs serve governments,” 29 April 2014 http://www.interventionism.info/en/CSI-Position-Paper-on-the-Sooka-report
De Silva-Ranasinghe, Serge 2010 “Information Warfare and the Endgame of the Civil War,” Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, May 2010, 30/4: 35-37, http://www.asiapacificdefencereporter.com/articles/40/Sri-Lanka.
DiManno, Rosie 2013 “Sri Lanka’s hidden genocide,” 4 Nov. 2013, https://www.thestar.com/news/world/2013/11/04/sri_lankas_hidden_genocide.html
Engage Sri Lanka 2013 Corrupted Journalism. Channel 4 and Sri Lanka. A Collective Work by Engage Sri Lanka, http://www.corruptedjournalism.com/book/Corrupted%20Journalism.pdf
Dixon, Richard 2009 “Tamils languishing in Sri Lankan Death Camps,” 12 June 2009, http://richarddix.livejournal.com/2028.html.
Ferdinando, Shamindra 2012 “British HC denies claims of deportee abuse,” 20 June 2012, http://www.island.lk/index.php?page_cat=article-details&page=article-details&code_title=54899
Fernando, Basil 2010 Sri Lanka. Impunity, Criminal Justice & Human Rights, ISBN 978-962-8314-48-5
Fernando, Ruki 2012 “Sri Lanka: When one goes missing every five days,” http://groundviews.org/2012/08/30/a-disappearance-every-five-days-in-post-war-sri-lanka/…………….. ALSO http://www.jdslanka.org/index.php/2012-01-30-09-31-17/human-rights/212-sri-lanka-when-one-…
Gunatilleke, Gehan & Nishan de Mel 2012 “Sri Lanka: LLRC Implementation Monitor,” November 2012.
GV-HRW List 2012 [Disappearances …], http://www.scribd.com/doc/82834794/Abductions-Since-October-2011-in-Sri-Lanka-Summary-List
Groundviews 2016 “Groundviews on Disappearances and the OMP,” 3 September 2016, https://thuppahis.com/2016/09/03/groundviews-on-disappearances-and-the-omp/
Harrison, Frances 2012 Still Counting the Dead, London: Portobello.
Harshula 2011 “When allegations becomes evidence,” 6 June 2011, http://groundviews.org/2011/06/06/when-allegations-become-evidence/
Harshula 2011 “Channel 4 ‘Killing Fields’: Journalism, Advocacy or Propaganda?” 13 Sept. 2011, http://groundviews.org/2011/09/13/channel-4s-killing-fields-journalism-advocacy-or-propaganda/.
Haviland, Charles 2012 “Former Sri Lanka Tamil Tiger rebels ‘disappear’,” 16 May 2012, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-18085765
Haviland, Charles 2012 “A question Sri Lanka’s leaders keep dodging: Where are the disappeared?” 21 March 2012, http://groundviews.org/2012/03/21/a-question-sri-lankas-leaders-keep-dodging-where-are-the-disappeared/
Hewavitharana, Siri 2011b “Channel-4 video a ‘fake’, concludes video forensic analyst,” http://www.globalpeacesupport.com/globalpeacesupport.com/post/2011/06/13/Channel-4-video-a-fake-concludes-video-forensic-analyst.aspx.
Hewavitharana, Siri 2011c “UN misled on Channel 4 video,” 6 August 2010, https://lrrp.wordpress.com/2011/08/06/un-misled-on-channel-4-video-by-siri-hewawitharana/
Hodge, Amanda and Stuart Rintoul, ‘Tortured’ Tamil put on a plane back to Sri Lanka,” 26 July 2012, http://thuppahis.com/2012/07/26/allegation-tortured-tamil-put-on-a-plane-back-to-sri-lanka/, The Australian, 26 July 2012.
Hodge, Amanda 2012 “Deported Tamil recants tales of torture,” Weekend Australian, 28/29 July 2012, http://thuppahis.com/2012/07/28/6405/
HRW 2013 “Sri Lanka: Rape of Tamil Detainees. Politically Motivated Sexual Assaults in Custody,” 26 February 2013, http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/02/26/sri-lanka-rape-tamil-detainees
Jeyaraj, DBS 2007 “An Overview of the “Enforced Disappearances” Phenomenon,” http://dbsjeyaraj.com/dbsj/archives/5508 and http://www.thesundayleader.lk/2012/04/15/an-overview-of-the-enforced-disappearances-phenomenon/
ICRC 2009a “ICRC Information [on Evacuees from Conflict Zone, 2009,” http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/interview/sri-lanka-interview-200509.htm
ICRC 2009b “Sri Lanka: ICRC assists thousands of persons in government-run sites for the displaced,” http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/update/sri-lanka-update-090609.htm
ICRC 2016 Living with Uncertainty: Needs of the Families of Missing Persons in Sri Lanka, July 2016, https://www.icrc.org/en/document/sri-lanka-families-missing-persons
IDAG [i.e. Citizen Silva] 2013 “The Numbers Game: Politics of Retributive Justice,” http://www.scribd.com/doc/132499266/The-Numbers-Game-Politics-of-Retributive-Justice OR http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/shrilanka/document/TheNG.pd
IMADR 2016 “Enforced and Involuntary Disappearances in Sri Lanka,” 12 September 2016, http://imadr.org/enforced-and-involuntary-disappearances-in-srilanka-hrc33-2016-ws/
IRIN 2012 “Thousands Missing 20 years after War ends,” 20 May 2012, http://www.irinnews.org/report/95477/sri-lanka-thousands-missing-three-years-after-war-ends
International Truth & Justice Project: Sri Lanka 2016 Forgotten: Sri Lanka’s Exiled Victims, June 2016, https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/justice-accountability-the-case-of-sri-lanka-tickets-25670536265.
Jayatilleka, Dayan 2010 “Charles Sarvan’s War,” 28 November 2011, http://www.thesundayleader.lk/2010/11/28/charlie-sarvan%E2%80%99s-war/
Just Security 2015 “Amb. Stephen Rapp on Sri Lanka’s War Crimes Investigation,” 15 September 2015, https://www.justsecurity.org/25918/amb-stephen-rapp-sri-lankas-war-crimes-investigation/
[LTTE] 2014 “LTTE War Video recovered by the Government–Revealing Episode,” https://thuppahis.com/2014/02/13/ltte-war-video-recovered-by-the-government-revealing-episodes
Kangasabai, Thambu 2014 “The Hidden Genocide of Tamils in Sri Lanka,” 24 October 2014, https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/the-hidden-genocide-of-tamils-in-sri-lanka/
Kanagasabathypillai, Dushi 2013 “Sons and Daughters missing, missed, forgotten: LLRC’s Failure in Sri Lanka,” Groundviews, March 2013, http://groundviews.org/2013/03/17/sons-and-daughters-missing-missed-forgotten-llrcs-failure-in-sri-lanka/
Kannangara, Nirmala 2013 “Families of the Disappeared to complain to UNHRC,” Sunday Leader, 15 March 2013. http://www.thesundayleader.lk/2013/03/10/families-of-the-disappeared-to-complain-to-unhrc/
Kariyakarawana, KK a & D. Yatawara, 2013 “Linking displaced family members in the North,” 11 August 2013, http://archives.sundayobserver.lk/2013/08/11/fea06.asp
Kurukulasuriya, Lasanda 2014 “Taking the Rap for Crimes not committed?’ Sunday Times, 12 January 2014, http://www.sundaytimes.lk/140112/columns/taking-the-rap-for-crimes-not-committed-79492.html
Marga 2014 Issues of Truth and Accountability. The Last Stages of the War in Sri Lanka, https://www.dropbox.com/s/tdxwntf7wu5andq/The%20Last%20Stages%20of%20the%20war%20in%20Sri%20Lanka.pdf?n=66191473
Ministry of Defence 2012a “A Factual Analysis of Disappearances and Abductions,” http://www.defence.lk/new.asp?fname=factual_analysis_of_disappearances_and_abductions_20120720_05, last modified 26/7/2012
Ministry of Defence 2012b “Analysis of the Disappearances reported by ‘Groundviews’, from October 2011 to March 2012 (updated version)” June 2012, 16 pp.Ministry of Defence, SL 2011 Humanitarian Operation. Factual Analysis,Colombo, 161 pp.
MPC 2014 “Missing Persons’ Commission denounces exaggerations by journalists,” Daily News, 21 October 2014, http://lk.newshub.org/m/missing-persons-commission-denounces-exaggerations-by-journalists-daily-news-online-5256929.html
Nadesan, Noel 2011 “Media and the Suffering of the Tamil People,” 14 July 2011, http://noelnadesan.wordpress.com/2011/07/14/media-and-thesuffering-of-the-tamil-people/
Narendran, Rajasingham 2009 “Rise and Fall of the LTTE — An Overview,” Sri Lanka Guardian, 7 Feb. 2009, http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2009/02/rise-and-fall-of-ltte-overview.html.
Narendran, Rajasingham 2014 “Harsh Ground Realities in War: Decomposing Bodies and Missing Persons and Soldiers,” 28 January 2014, https://thuppahis.com/2014/01/28/11702/
Noble, Kath 2013 “Numbers Game reviewed by Kath Noble: The full monty,” 14 July 2013, https://thuppahis.com/2013/07/14/numbers-game-reviewed-by-kath-noble-the-full-monty/
NWHF: “National War Heroes Front written to US Ambassador on OMP Bill,” 28 August 2016, http://www.sinhalanet.net/national-war-heroes-front-written-to-us-ambassador-in-omp-bill ANDhttp://www.lankaweb.com/news/items/2016/08/28/national-war-heroes-front-written-to-us-ambassador-on-omp-bill/”
OHCHR 2015 “Preliminary observations of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances at the conclusion of its visit to Sri Lanka,” 18 Nov. 2015, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=16771&LangID=E
Padraig Colman 2011b “Evaluating the ‘Churnalism’ from Channel 4 and the Moon Panel,” 17 August 2011, http:// thuppahi.wordpress.com/2011/08/17/a-credible-evaluation-of-%e2%80%9cchurnalism%e2%80%9d-from-channel-4-and-themoon-panel/.
Padraig Colman 2011 “Channel 4 News and Sri Lankan War Crimes,” http://pcolman.wordpress.com/2011/08/12/channel-4-news-and-srilankan-war-crimes/
Padraig Colman 2013 “Revisiting Gordon Weiss’s accountability in his The Cage,” 12 May 2013, http://thuppahis.com/2013/05/12/revisiting-gordon-weisss-accountability-in-his-the-cage/
Perera, Amantha 2015 “Will UN report bring justice for Sri Lanka war victims?” 2 September 2015, http://www.irinnews.org/report/101942/will-un-report-bring-justice-sri-lanka-war-victims
Perera, Kusal 2016 Unearthed: Ten Years in Sri Lanka – 2005-2015, Sri Lanka, Ravaya Publishers.
Prasad, Kanchan 2011c “Two Indian Reporters’ Post-War Pictures at the LTTE’s Last Redoubt, May 14-19, 2009,” ed. by Roberts, June 2011, http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/blogs/southasiamasala/2011/06/10/two-indian-reporters%E2%80%99-post-war-pictures-at-the-ltte%E2%80%99s-last-redoubt-may-14-19-2009.
Prasad, Kanchan 2011b “Mullivaikkal Hospital in NFZ Last Redoubt,” in http://www.flickr.com/photos/thuppahi/sets/72157626797848747/
Samaraweera & Indrajith 2016 “Missing Persons: Institutionalization of Fact Finding via OMP,” 12 August 2016, https://thuppahis.com/2016/08/12/missing-persons-institutionalization-of-fact-finding-via-omp/
Radhakrishnan, R. K. 2012 “A mother searches for her son, with a photograph that appeared in The Hindu,” 15 May 2012, http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/article3423066.ece
Reddy, Muralidhar 2009e “Final Assault. A first-hand account of the war and the civilians’ plight as Eelam War almost comes to a close,” Frontline, 26/11, May 23-June 5, 2009, http://www.frontline.in/navigation/?type=static&page=archive.
Reddy, Muralidhar 2009f “Final Hours. An eye-witness account of the last 70 hours of Eelam War IV,” Frontline, 26/12, 6-19 June 2009, http://www.frontline.in/static/html/fl2612/stories/ 20090619261200900.htm
Roberts, Michael 2011 “Turning Former LTTE Personnel into Sri Lankan Citizens?” https://thuppahis.com/2011/10/31/turning-tiger-personnel-into-lankan-citizens/
Roberts, Michael 2011 “Mental Health Facilities for the Tamils at the IDP Camps and Now for Those Being Resettled. Reports from Manori Unambuwe,” 9 September 2011, https://thuppahis.com/2011/09/09/mental-health-facilities-for-the-tamils-at-the-idp-camps-and-now-for-those-being-resettled-%e2%80%a6-reports-from-manori-unambuwe/
Roberts, Michael 2011 “Mixed Messages and Bland Oversimplification in President Rajapaksa’s Independence Day Speech,” 11 February 2013, http://groundviews.org/2013/02/11/mixed-messages-and-bland-oversimplification-in-president-rajapaksas-independence-day-speech/
Roberts, Michael 2012 “Mahinda Rajapaksa: Cakravarti Imagery and Populist Processes,” 28 January 2012, https://thuppahis.com/2012/01/28/mahinda-rajapaksa-cakravarti-imagery-and-populist-processes/
Roberts, Michael 2012 “What is missing in those “Missing”? Issues relating to the statistics on enforced disappearances in Lanka,” 30 May 2012, https://thuppahis.com/2012/05/30/what-is-missing-in-those-missing-issues-realting-to-the-statistics-on-enforced-disappearances-in-lanka/ …. Also in GV at http://groundviews.org/2012/05/27/the-disappeared-in-sri-lankas-war-in-the-recent-past-what-is-missing-in-those-missing/
Roberts, Michael 2012 “Longitudinal UNICEF Survey of Nutrition in the IDP Camps in 2009,” December 2012, http://thuppahis.com/2012/12/12/longitudinal-unicef-survey-of-nutrition-in-the-idpcamps-in-2009/.
Roberts, Michael 2012 “Visual Imagery within Political Struggles and Manoeuvres,” in Roberts, Tamil Person and State, Pictorial, Colombo: VijithaYapa Publications, 2014, 1-44.
Roberts, Michael 2012 “Australian Gullibility: forgeries, lies and manipulation in the netherworld of in-migration, 26 July 2012, http://thuppahis.com/2012/07/26/australian-gullibility-forgeries-lies-and-manipulation-in-the-netherworld-of-in-migration/
Roberts, Michael 2012 “Amanda Hodge adds twist to Dayan Anthony’s tale,” 28 July 2012, http://thuppahis.com/2012/07/28/6405/
Roberts, Michael 2013 “A Missing Person in Sri Lanka: Heartfelt Issues & Ground Realities,” 30 March 2013, https://thuppahis.com/2013/03/30/a-missing-person-in-sri-lanka-heartfelt-issues-ground-realities/
Roberts, Michael 2013 “Pictorial Illustrations of the Mass Exodus from the Last Redoubt, 20-22 April and mid-May 2009: Appendix V for “BBC Blind”,https://thuppahis.com/2013/12/11/exodus-from-the-last-redoubt-late-april-mid-may-2009-appendix-v-for-bbc-blind
Roberts, Michael 2014 “The War in Sri Lanka and Post-War Propaganda,” [being the Memorandum to Sandra Beidas and OISL Team in Geneva] 18 November 2014, reproduced in https://groundviews.org/2014/11/07/the-war-in-sri-lanka-and-propaganda-debates-an-analysis-for-the-ohchr-in-geneva/AND https://thuppahis.com/2014/11/18/the-war-in-sri-lanka-and-propaganda-debates/
Roberts, Michael 2014 “Cartographic & Photographic Illustrations in support of the Memorandum Analysing the War in Sri Lanka and Its Propaganda Debates,” 18 November 2014, https://thuppahis.com/2014/11/18/cartographic-photographic-illustrations-in-support-of-the-memorandum-analysing-the-war-in-sri-lanka-and-propaganda-debates/
Roberts, Michael 2016 ‘Hardline Ethnic Mind-Sets: Jane Russell’s Findings and Reflections,” 20 April 2016, https://thuppahis.com/2016/04/28/hardline-ethnic-mind-sets-jane-russells-findings-and-reflections/
Roberts, Michael 2016 “Embittered Tamilness as a Problem for Reconciliation in Sri Lanka,” 3 August 2016, https://thuppahis.com/2016/08/03/embittered-tamilness-on-display-the-case-of-robert-perinpanayagam/
Samaraweera, Mangala 2016 “Missing Persons: Institutionalization of Fact Finding via OMP,” 12 August 2016, https://thuppahis.com/2016/08/12/missing-persons-institutionalization-of-fact-finding-via-omp/
Senaratne, Kalana 2011 “Killing Fields: Problems and Prospects, “The Island, 24 June 2011 [also in https://thuppahis.com/2011/06/24/killing-fields%E2%80%99-problems-and-prospects/].
Setunga, Myrna 2009 “An Overview: Setunga V,” 22 July 2009 22 July2009, http://thuppahis.com/2012/10/01/an-overview-setungav-22-july-2009/
Shanmugarajah, V. 2014 “Dr. Veerakanthipillai Shanmugarajah’s Affidavit Description of Conditions in the Vanni Pocket in Refutation of Channel Four,” 5 January 2014, https://thuppahis.com/2014/01/05/drveerakanthipillai-shanmugarajahs-affidavit-description-of-conditionsin-the-vanni-pocket-in-refutation-of-channel-four/
Silva, Tudor 2015 “Ethnicity and Religion as drivers of Charity and Philanthropy n Colombo: Implications for Social Harmony in Sri Lanka,” draft article in press
Social Architects n. d. “Social Architects Story 4; Thushi and Nilani,” http://www.tsasouthasia.org/eng/personal_stories/thushi-and-nilani/
Sri Lanka Government 2013 “The Last Phase,” video film, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngNeF5WY64s.
Sri Lanka Media Watch 2011 “Appalling Journalism. Jon Snow and Channel 4 News on Sri Lanka,” November 2011, http://www.defence.lk/news/pdf/Appalling%20Journalism.pdf.
Sri Lanka Media Watch 2012 “An Unreliable Witness. Gordon Weiss, The Cage and Sri Lanka,” http://webdesginottawa.me/slembassyparis/index.php?option=com_content& view=article&id=745%3Aan-unreliable-witness-gordon-weiss-the-cage-and-sri-lanka-&catid=100%3Aheadlines&Itemid=313&lang=en.
Sriyananda, Shanika 2009 “At long last they are free!” Sunday Observer, 17 May 2009.
Sumanthiran, M. A. 2013 “United in Grief,” Sunday Island, 9 August 2013.
Sunday Leader 2012 “Disappearances in Massive Scale during 2006–2009,”
Swami, Praveen 2013 “From Sri Lanka – questions about wars,” November 2013, http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/from-sri-lanka-questions-about-wars/article5369777.ece.
Thangavelu, Velupillai 2013 “LTTE Cadres Who Surrendered to The Army: Where Are They?” Colombo Telegraph, 18 August 2013, http://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/ltte-cadres-who-surrendered-to-the-army-where-are-they/.
Times 2011 TIMES Aerial Images, NFZ Last Redoubt, 23 May 2009,” http://www.flickr.com/ photos/thuppahi/sets/72157626922360092/
You Tube Power Point 2011 “Technical Analysis of Channel 4 Killing Fields,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RRrGDPKVJh0
The Telegraph 2011 “Sri Lankan army commanders assassinated surrendering Tamils, says ex-major general,” 19 December 2011,http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/srilanka/8964147/Sri-Lankan-army-commanders-assassinated-surrendering-Tamils.html
Thuppahi 2012 “Government Census on War Deaths in 2009: Two Reports,” 26 February 2012, https://thuppahis.com/2012/02/26/government-census-on-war-deaths-in-2009-two-reports/
Thuppahi 2014 “Torture ‘Clinics’ in UK as Pathway to Asylum?” 13 October 2014,
UN Economic & Social Council 1999 “Civil and Political Rights, including Questions of Disappearances and Summary Executions,” 21 December 1999.
UNICEF 2011 “Overview of ongoing government efforts to trace and unify missing children in Northern Sri Lanka,” July 2011.
US Department of State 2009 Report to Congress on Incidents During the Recent Conflict in Sri Lanka.
UTHR 2009 A Marred Victory and a Defeat pregnant with Meaning,Special Report No. 32.
UTHR 2009 Let Them Speak: Truth about Sri Lanka’s Victims of War. Special Report No. 34, http://www.uthr.org/SpecialReports/Special%20rep34/Uthr-sp.rp34.htm
Vidura 2009 “The Great Escapes,” Sunday Leader, 17 May 2009.
Waduge, Shenali 2014 “In Pictures: Sri Lanka’s Soldiers saving Tamils from LTTE Terrorists,” 13 Oct 2014, http://www.sinhalanet.net/in-pictures-sri-lankas-soldiers-saving-tamils-from-ltte-terrorists
Watchdog 2012 “New wave of abductions and dead bodies in Sri Lanka,” 26 Feb, 2012, http://groundviews.org/2012/02/26/new-wave-of-abductions-and-dead-bodies-in-sri-lanka/
Watchdog 2012 “Horrible rise of disappearances in post-war Sri Lanka continues unabated,” 5 Apr, 2012, http://groundviews.org/2012/04/05/horrible-rise-of-disappearances-in-post-war-sri-lanka-continues-unabated
Watchdog 2012 “A disappearance every five days in post-war Sri Lanka,” 30 August 2012, http://groundviews.org/2012/08/30/a-disappearance-every-five-days-in-post-war-sri-lanka/
Watchdog 2013 “Police detains families of disappeared from Northern Sri Lanka and prevents peaceful protest and petition to the UN,”Groundviews, 7 March 2013, http://groundviews.org/2013/03/07/police-detains-families-of-disappeared-from-northern-sri-lanka-andprevents-peaceful-protest-and-petition-to-the-un/.
Watchdog 2014 “Enforced Disappearances in Sri Lanka: 2006-2013. Right s of the Families of the Disappeared,” 9 January 2014, http://groundviews.org/2014/01/09/enforceddisappearances-in-sri-lanka-2006-2013/.
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