Low Cost Precision Weapons: A Bibliography on Suicide Attacks

Courtesy of The Poor Man’s Smart Bomb at http://pmsmartbomb.wordpress.com/suicide-attacks%C2%A0bibliography/

twin towers burnI thought it might be useful to share this list of articles and books relating to suicide attacks. This is an ongoing effort and is by no means comprehensive and is fairly narrowly focused – I have no intention of trying to catalogue all materials related to terrorism and insurgency. I’ll be updating the bibliography as I go along. If you notice any glaring omissions or have suggestions for new material, please comment below or email me at pmsmartbomb at gmail dot com.

21-Black Tigers Marching Black Tigers marching

Bibliography (updated 20 September 2010)

Abdel-Khalek, AM. “Neither Altruistic Suicide, nor Terrorism but Martyrdom: A Muslim Perspective.” Archives of Suicide Research 8, no. 1 (2004): 99-113.

Ahmed, H. “Palestinian Resistance and ‘Suicide Bombing’: Causes and Consequences.” Root Causes of Terrorism-Myths, Reality and ways forward,, Routledge, London and New York (2005).

Ali, F., and J. Post. “The History and Evolution of Martyrdom in the Service of Defensive Jihad: An Analysis of Suicide Bombers in Current Conflicts.” Social Research: An International Quarterly of Social Sciences 75, no. 2 (2008): 615-54.

Andoni, L. “Searching for Answers: Gaza’s Suicide Bombers.” Journal of Palestine Studies 26, no. 4 (1997): 33-45.

Asad, T. On Suicide Bombing: Columbia Univ Pr, 2007.

Ayers, N. “Ghost Martyrs in Iraq: An Assessment of the Applicability of Rationalist Models to Explain Suicide Attacks in Iraq.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 31, no. 9 (2008): 856-82.

Azam, JP. “Suicide-Bombing as Inter-Generational Investment.” Public Choice 122, no. 1 (2005): 177-98.

Baloch, QB. “Suicide Missions: Power of the Powerless and Powerlessness of the Powerful.”

Barlow, Hugh D. Dead for Good : Martyrdom and the Rise of the Suicide Bomber. Boulder ; London: Paradigm Publishers, 2007.

Benmelech, Effi and Berrebi, Claude. “Attack Assignments in Terror Organizations and the Productivity of Suicide Bombers.” NBER Working Paper No. W12910 (2007).

Berko, A. The Path to Paradise: The Inner World of Suicide Bombers and Their Dispatchers: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007.

Berko, A, and E Erez. “” Ordinary People” And” Death Work”: Palestinian Suicide Bombers as Victimizers and Victims.” Violence and Victims 20, no. 6 (2005): 603-23.

Bessner, D, and M Stauch. “Karl Heinzen and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Terror.” Terrorism and Political Violence 22, no. 2 (2010): 143-76.

Bloom, Mia. Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror. New York ; Chichester: Columbia University Press, 2005.

Bloom, M. “Chasing Butterflies and Rainbows: A Critique of Kruglanski Et Al.’S” Fully Committed: Suicide Bombers’ Motivation and the Quest for Personal Significance”.” Political Psychology 30, no. 3 (2009): 387-95.

Bloom, M M. “Ethnic Conflict, State Terror and Suicide Bombing in Sri Lanka.” Civil Wars 6 (2003): 54-84.

Borum, R, and M Gelles. “Al-Qaeda’s Operational Evolution: Behavioral and Organizational Perspectives.” Behavioral sciences & the law 23, no. 4 (2005): 467-83.

Brym, RJ, and B Araj. “Suicide Bombing as Strategy and Interaction: The Case of the Second Intifada.” Social Forces 84 (2005): 1969.

Bunker, R J, and J P Sullivan. “Suicide Bombings in Operation Iraqi Freedom.” Military Review 85 (2005): 69-79.

Burke, Jason. Al-Qaeda : Casting a Shadow of Terror. London: I.B. Tauris, 2003.

Catignani, S. “The Security Imperative in Counterterror Operations: The Israeli Fight against Suicidal Terror.” Terrorism and Political Violence 17, no. 1 (2005): 245-64.

Corbin, Jane. The Base : In Search of Al-Qaeda, the Terror Network That Shook the World. London: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

Cragin, K, and S A Daly. The Dynamic Terrorist Threat: An Assessment of Group Motivations and Capabilities in a Changing World: Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, 2004.

Crenshaw, M. “”Explaining Suicide Terrorism: A Review Essay”.” Security Studies 16 (2007): 133-62.

———. “Intimations of Mortality or Production Lines? The Puzzle of “Suicide Terrorism” ” Political Psychology 30, no. 3 (2009): 359-64.

Dale, Stephen F. “Religious Suicide in Islamic Asia: Anticolonial Terrorism in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 32, no. 1 (1988): 37.

Davis, JM. Martyrs: Innocence, Vengeance, and Despair in the Middle East: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Dolnik, Adam. “Learning to Die: Suicide Terrorism in the 21st Century.” In The Making of a Terrorist : Recruitment, Training, and Root Causes, edited by James J. Forest. London: Praeger Security International 2006.

———. Understanding Terrorist Innovation : Technology, Tactics and Global Trends. London: Routledge, 2007.

Dolnik, A, and A Bhattacharjee. “Hamas: Suicide Bombings, Rockets, or Wmd?” Terrorism and Political Violence 14, no. 3 (2002): 109-28.

Drake, C J M. Terrorists’ Target Selection. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998.

E Berman, D Laitan. “Rational Martyrs Vs. Hard Target: Evidence on the Tactical Use of Suicide Attacks.” In The Market for Martyrs: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Suicide Bombing (Forthcoming), edited by Eva Meyersson: Princeton University Press.

El Sarraj, E, and L Butler. “Suicide Bombers: Dignity, Despair, and the Need for Hope: An Interview with Eyad El Sarraj.” Journal of Palestine Studies 31, no. 4 (2002): 71-76.

Ergil, D. “Suicide Terrorism in Turkey.” Civil Wars 3 (2000): 37-54.

Esposito, MK. “The Al-Aqsa Intifada: Military Operations, Suicide Attacks, Assassinations, and Losses in the First Four Years.” Journal of Palestine Studies 34, no. 2 (2005): 85-122.

Fair, C Christine. Urban Battle Fields of South Asia : Lessons Learned from Sri Lanka, India, and Pakistan. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2004.

Fishman, Brian. Dysfunction and Decline: Lessons Learned from inside Al-Qa`Ida in Iraq West Point, NY: The Combating Terrorism Centre at West Point, 2009.

Flanigan, ST. “Nonprofit Service Provision by Insurgent Organizations: The Cases of Hizballah and the Tamil Tigers.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 31, no. 6 (2008): 499-519.

Freamon, BK, and ON Center. “Martyrdom, Suicide, and the Islamic Law of War: A Short Legal History.” Fordham International Law Journal 27 (2003): 299-369.

Frisch, H. “Motivation or Capabilities? Israeli Counterterrorism against Palestinian Suicide Bombings and Violence.” Journal of Strategic Studies 29 (2006): 843-69.

Gambetta, Diego. Making Sense of Suicide Missions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

———. “Can We Make Sense of Suicide Missions?” In Making Sense of Suicide Missions, edited by Diego Gambetta. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Gambetta, D, and S Hertog. “Engineers of Jihad.” In Sociology Working Papers: University of Oxford, 2007.

Ganor, Boaz. “The Rationality of the Islamic Radical Suicide Attack Phenomenon ” In Countering Suicide Terrorism : An International Conference. Herzliya: ICT, 2001.

Geifman, A. Thou Shalt Kill: Revolutionary Terrorism in Russia, 1894-1917: Princeton Univ Pr, 1995.

Gill, P. “A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Suicide Bombing.” International Journal of Conflict and Violence 1, no. 2 (2007): 142-59.

Gunaratna, R. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror: Columbia Univ Pr, 2002.

Gupta, DK, and K Mundra. “Suicide Bombing as a Strategic Weapon: An Empirical Investigation of Hamas and Islamic Jihad.” Terrorism and Political Violence 17, no. 4 (2005): 573-98.

Hafez, Mohammad. ” Suicide Terrorism in Iraq: A Preliminary Assessment of the Quantitative Data and Documentary Evidence.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, , no. 29 (2006): pp591-619.

Hafez, MM. “Rationality, Culture, and Structure in the Making of Suicide Bombers: A Preliminary Theoretical Synthesis and Illustrative Case Study.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 29, no. 2 (2006): 165.

———. Suicide Bombers in Iraq: The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom: United States Inst of Peace Pr, 2007.

Harrison, Mark. “The Logic of Suicide Terrorism.” Royal United Services Institute Security Monitor 2, no. 1 (2003).

Harrison, M. “Bombers and Bystanders in Suicide Attacks in Israel, 2000 to 2003.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29, no. 2 (2006): 187-206.

Hassan, Nasra. “An Arsenal of Believers.” The New Yorker (2001).

Hegghammer, T. “Islamist Violence and Regime Stability in Saudi Arabia.” International Affairs 84, no. 4 (2008): 701-15.

Hegghammer, Thomas. Jihad in Saudi Arabia : Violence and Pan-Islamism since 1979. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Henriksen, R, and A Vinci. “Combat Motivation in Non-State Armed Groups.” Terrorism and Political Violence 20, no. 1 (2008): 87-109.

Hewitt, C, and J Kelley-Moore. “Foreign Fighters in Iraq: A Cross-National Analysis of Jihadism.” Terrorism and Political Violence 21, no. 2 (2009): 211-20.

Hoffman, B. “Defending America against Suicide Terrorism.” Paper presented at the Three years after: next steps in the war on terror, Washington, DC, September 2004.

Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

Hoffman, B., and G H McCormick. “Terrorism, Signaling, and Suicide Attack.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 27, no. 4 (2004): 243-82.

Hopgood, Stephen. “Tamil Tigers 1987-2002.” In Making Sense of Suicide Missions, edited by Diego Gambetta, 43-76. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Innaccone, Laurence R. The Market for Martyrs, Global Prosperity Initiative Working Paper 35 George Mason University 2003.

Israeli, R. Islamikaze: Manifestations of Islamic Martyrology: Routledge, 2003.

Jacques, K, and PJ Taylor. “Male and Female Suicide Bombers: Different Sexes, Different Reasons?” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 31, no. 4 (2008): 304-26.

Jaeger, DA, MD Paserman, and M Scopus. The Shape of Things to Come? Assessing the Effectiveness of Suicide Attacks and Targeted Killings, Discussion Paper No. 2890: Institute for the Study of Labor, 2007.

Jessee, DD. “Tactical Means, Strategic Ends: Al Qaeda’s Use of Denial and Deception.” Terrorism and Political Violence 18, no. 3 (2006): 367-88.

Jones, SG. “Fighting Networked Terrorist Groups: Lessons from Israel.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30, no. 4 (2007): 281-302.

Joshi, M. “On the Razor’s Edge: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 19, no. 1 (1996): 19-42.

Juergensmeyer, M. “Martyrdom and Sacrifice in a Time of Terror.” Social Research: An International Quarterly 75, no. 2 (2008): 417-34.

Kaarthikeyan, DR, and R Raju. Triumph of Truth: The Rajiv Gandhi Assassination, the Investigation: New Dawn Pr, 2004.

Katz, SM. Jihad in Brooklyn: The Nypd Raid That Stopped America’s First Suicide Bombers: New York: New American Library, 2005.

Kenney, M. “Beyond the Internet: Metis, Techne, and the Limitations of Online Artifacts for Islamist Terrorists.” Terrorism and Political Violence 22, no. 2 (2010): 177-97.

Khosrokhavar, Farhad. Suicide Bombers : Allah’s New Martyrs. London: Pluto, 2005.

———. Inside Jihadism : Understanding Jihadi Movements Worldwide. Boulder ; London: Paradigm Publishers, 2009.

Kirby, A. “The London Bombers as Self-Starters: A Case Study in Indigenous Radicalization and the Emergence of Autonomous Cliques.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30 (2007): 415-28.

Kittner, CCB. “The Role of Safe Havens in Islamist Terrorism.” Terrorism and Political Violence 19, no. 3 (2007): 307-29.

Kruglanski, AW, X Chen, M Dechesne, S Fishman, and E Orehek. “Fully Committed: Suicide Bombers’ Motivation and the Quest for Personal Significance.” Political Psychology 30, no. 3 (2009): 331-57.

Lester, D, B Yang, and M Lindsay. “Suicide Bombers: Are Psychological Profiles Possible?” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 27, no. 4 (2004): 283-95.

Lewis, J W. “Precision Terror: Suicide Bombing as Control Technology.” Terrorism and Political Violence 19, no. 2 (2007): 223-45.

———. “Self-Sacrifice as Innovation: The Strategic and Tactical Utility of Martyrdom.” Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict 1, no. 1 (2008): 66-87.

Lia, B. Architect of Global Jihad: The Life of Al-Qaida Strategist Abu Mus’ Ab Al-Suri: Hurst, 2007.

Lia, B, and T Hegghammer. “Jihadi Strategic Studies: The Alleged Al Qaida Policy Study Preceding the Madrid Bombings.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 27, no. 5 (2004): 355-75.

Marion, R, and M Uhl-Bien. “Complexity Theory and Al-Qaeda: Examining Complex Leadership.” Emergence 5, no. 1 (2003): 54-76.

McAllister, B. “Al Qaeda and the Innovative Firm: Demythologizing the Network.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 27, no. 4 (2004): 297-320.

Mccartan, L, A Masselli, M Rey, and D Rusnak. “The Logic of Terrorist Target Choice: An Examination of Chechen Rebel Bombings from 1997-2003.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 31, no. 1 (2008): 60.

McDermott, T. Perfect Soldiers: The Hijackers: Who They Were, Why They Did It: Politico’s, 2005.

Merari, Ariel. “Suicide Attacks as a Terrorist Tactic: Characteristics and Counter-Measures.” Strategic Review for Southern Africa 29, no. 2 (2007): 23-38.

Miller, J, M Stone, and C Mitchell. The Cell: Inside the 9/11 Plot and Why the Fbi and CIA Failed to Stop It: Hyperion Books, 2002.

Mintz, A, and D Brule. “Methodological Issues in Studying Suicide Terrorism.” To appear in: Political Psychology 30, no. 1 (2009).

Moghadam, Asaf. “The Roots of Suicide Terrorism – a Multi-Casual Approach.” In Root Causes of Suicide Terrorism: The Globalization of Martyrdom, edited by Ami  Pedahzur. London: Routledge, 2006.

Moghadam, A. “Suicide Terrorism, Occupation, and the Globalization of Martyrdom: A Critique of Dying to Win.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29, no. 8 (2006): 707-29.

———. “Mayhem, Myths, and Martyrdom: The Shi’a Conception of Jihad.” Terrorism and Political Violence 19, no. 1 (2007): 125-43.

———. The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks: Johns Hopkins Univ Pr, 2008.

Moghadam, Asaf. “Motives for Martyrdom: Al-Qaida, Salafi Jihad, and the Spread of Suicide Attacks.” International Security 33, no. 3 (2009): 46-78.

Moore, C, and P Tumelty. “Foreign Fighters and the Case of Chechnya: A Critical Assessment.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 31, no. 5 (2008): 412-33.

Narayan Swamy, M R. Tigers of Lanka, from Boys to Guerrillas. 3rd ed. Delhi: Konark Publishers, 2002.

Nesser, P. “How Did Europe’s Global Jihadis Obtain Training for Their Militant Causes?” Terrorism and Political Violence 20, no. 2 (2008): 234-56.

O’Neill, Sean, and Daniel McGrory. The Suicide Factory : Abu Hamza and the Finsbury Park Mosque. London: Harper Perennial, 2006.

Oliver, AM, and PF Steinberg. The Road to Martyrs’ Square: A Journey into the World of the Suicide Bomber: Oxford University Press Oxford, 2005.

Overgaard, P B. “The Scale of Terrorist Attacks as a Signal of Resources.” Journal of Conflict Resolution (1994): 452-78.

Pape, RA. “The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism.” American Political Science Review 97, no. 03 (2003): 343-61.

Pape, RA, and L Mideast. “Suicide Terrorism and Democracy: What Weíve Learned since 9/11.” Policy Analysis 582 (2006): 1ñ20.

Pape, Robert Anthony. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. New York: Random House, 2005.

Pedahzur, A. “Toward an Analytical Model of Suicide Terrorismóa Comment.” Terrorism and Political Violence 16, no. 4 (2004): 841-44.

Pedahzur, Ami. Suicide Terrorism. Cambridge: Polity, 2005.

Pedahzur, A, A Perliger, and L Weinberg. “Altruism and Fatalism: The Characteristics of Palestinian Suicide Terrorists.” Deviant Behavior 24, no. 4 (2003): 405-23.

Pedahzur, Ami & Perliger A. “The Making of Suicide Bombers: A Comparative Perspective.” In The Making of a Terrorist: Recruitment, Training and Root Causes, edited by James J F Forest. Westport, Conn. ; London: Praeger Security International, 2006.

Pedazhur, Ami. Root Causes of Suicide Terrorism : The Globalization of Martyrdom. London: Routledge, 2006.

Piazza, JA. “A Supply-Side View of Suicide Terrorism: A Cross-National Study.” The Journal of Politics 70, no. 01 (2008): 28-39.

Piazza, J A. “Is Islamist Terrorism More Dangerous?: An Empirical Study of Group Ideology, Organization, and Goal Structure.” Terrorism and Political Violence 21, no. 1 (2009): 62-88.

Post, JM. “Reframing of Martyrdom and Jihad and the Socialization of Suicide Terrorists.” Political Psychology 30, no. 3 (2009): 381-85.

Quillen, C. “A Historical Analysis of Mass Casualty Bombers.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 25, no. 5 (2002): 279-92.

Reuter, C. My Life Is a Weapon: A Modern History of Suicide Bombing: Princeton University Press, 2004.

Reuter, John. “Chechnya’s Suicide Bombers: Desperate, Devout or Deceived?”: The Amercian Committee for Peace in Chechnya, 2004.

Roberts, M. “Suicide Missions as Witnessing: Expansions, Contrasts.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30, no. 10 (2007): 857-87.

Rosenberger, J. “Discerning the Behavior of the Suicide Bomber: The Role of Vengeance.” Journal of Religion and Health 42, no. 1 (2003): 13-20.

Saarnivaara, M. “Suicide Campaigns as a Strategic Choice: The Case of Hamas.” Policing 2, no. 4 (2008): 423.

Sageman, Marc. Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Sageman, M. Leaderless Jihad: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

Schweitzer, Y. “Suicide Terrorism: Development and Characteristics.” Paper presented at the lecture presented at the International Conference on Countering Suicide Terrorism at ICT, Herzeliya, Israel, 2000.

Shay, S. “The Shahids: Islam and Suicide Attacks.” R. Lieberman. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction (2004).

Silke, A. “The Role of Suicide in Politics, Conflict, and Terrorism.” Terrorism and Political Violence 18, no. 1 (2006): 35-46.

Skaine, R. Female Suicide Bombers: McFarland & Company.

Slavicek, DJ. “Deconstructing the Shariatic Justification of Suicide Bombings.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 31, no. 6 (2008): 553-71.

Speckhard, A, and K Ahkmedova. “The Making of a Martyr: Chechen Suicide Terrorism.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29, no. 5 (2006): 429-92.

Speckhard, A, and K Akhmedova. “Black Widows: The Chechen Female Suicide Terrorists.” Female Suicide Terrorists (2005).

Speckhard, A, N Tarabrina, V Krasnov, and K Akhmedova. “Research Note: Observations of Suicidal Terrorists in Action.” Terrorism and Political Violence 16, no. 2 (2004): 305-27.

Sprinzak, E. “Rational Fanatics.” Foreign Policy, no. 120 (2000): 66-73.

Stack-O’Connor, Alisa. “Lions, Tigers, and Freedom Birds: How and Why the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Employs Women.” Terrorism and Political Violence, no. 19 (2007): 43-63.

Stenersen, A. “The Internet: A Virtual Training Camp?” Terrorism and Political Violence 20, no. 2 (2008): 215-33.

Strenski, I. “Sacrifice, Gift and the Social Logic of Muslim Ëhuman Bombersí.” Terrorism and Political Violence 15, no. 3 (2003): 1-1.

Taarnby, Michael. “Recruitment of Islamist Terrorists in Europe: Trends and Perspectives.” Centre for Cultural Research, University of Aarhus, 2005.

Taylor Maxwell, Ryan, Helen. “Fanaticism, Political Suicide and Terrorism.” Terrorism 11 (1988): 91-111.

Tønnessen, T H. “Training on a Battlefield: Iraq as a Training Ground for Global Jihadis.” Terrorism and Political Violence 20, no. 4 (2008): 543-62.

UNAMA. Suicide Attacks in Afghanistan Kabul: United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, 2007.

Victor, B. Army of Roses: Inside the World of Palestinian Women Suicide Bombers: Rodale Books, 2003.

Victoroff, J. “Suicide Terrorism and the Biology of Significance.” Political Psychology 30, no. 3 (2009): 397-400.

Wade, SJ, and D Reiter. “Does Democracy Matter?: Regime Type and Suicide Terrorism.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 51, no. 2 (2007): 329.

Weinberg, L, A Pedahzur, and D Canetti-Nisim. “The Social and Religious Characteristics of Suicide Bombers and Their Victims.” Terrorism and Political Violence 15, no. 3 (2003): 139-53.

Whitehead, NL, and N Abufarha. “Suicide, Violence, and Cultural Conceptions of Martyrdom in Palestine.” Social Research: An International Quarterly 75, no. 2 (2008): 395-416.

Wijesekera, D. “The Cult of Suicide and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.” Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 5, no. 1 (1996): 18-28.

Williams, Brian Glyn. “The Taliban Fedayeen: The World’s Worst Suicide Bombers?” Terrorism Monitor,no. 14 (2007), http://www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?articleid=2373562.

Winkates, J. “Suicide Terrorism: Martyrdom for Organizational Objectives.” Journal of Third World Studies 23, no. 1 (2006): 87.

Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower : Al-Qaeda’s Road to 9/11. London: Allen Lane, 2006.

Wyne, A. “Suicide Terrorism as Strategy: Case Studies of Hamas and the Kurdistan Workers Party.” Strategic Insights IV, no. 7 (2005).

Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas. “Organizational Profiling of Suicide Terrorism: A Pakistani Case Study ” Defence Studies 9, no. 3 (2009): 409-53.

Zaman, MQ. “Sectarianism in Pakistan: The Radicalization of Shi Ëi and Sunni Identities.” Modern Asian Studies 32, no. 03 (2001): 689-716.

Zwikael, O. “Al Qaeda’s Operations: Project Management Analysis.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30, no. 3 (2007): 267-80.


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